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The hazard class (LH, OH, HH) to which sprinkler system is to be designed, will determine the characteristics of the fire sprinkler installation in regards of specification of water supply, number of fire pumps, number of sprinklers etc.
A fire protection standard is a document with mandatory provisions to indicate requirements for planning, installation and maintenance of fire extinguishing systems (such as sprinkler systems, water mist -, gas – and foam systems). Overall requirements demanded from the components, such as performance, specifications and listings, is to some degree included.
Fire-pumps are typically made with non corrosive internal parts to avoid clogging due to corrosion. To avoid cavitation and to have a stable system pressure, the fire-pumps are most often designed specifically for fire-pump purposes, with strict demands to the NPSH value and flow [Q] and head [H] curve.
Fire Pump controllers for diesel – and electric driven fire-pumps are given a signal from a pressure-switch to start up the fire-pumps. There is always one control-panel per fire-pump for safety reasons.
Fire-pumps are typically listed by an approval institute and can be driven either by an electric motor or diesel engine. In a fire installation there can be one or more fire pumps put into operation as a duty assist (50%) – and standby pumps.
Fire sprinklers can be open orifice or automatic. Automatic sprinklers are activated by heat that breaks the sensing device keeping the sprinkler closed. The water from the pipe comes through the sprinkler and hits the deflector and gives a water spray.